Dating is a stage of romantic relationships in humans whereby two people meet socially with the aim of each assessing the other's suitability as a prospective partner in an intimate relationship. It is a form of courtship , consisting of social activities done by the couple, either alone or with others. The protocols and practices of dating, and the terms used to describe it, vary considerably from country to country and over time. While the term has several meanings, the most frequent usage refers to two people exploring whether they are romantically or sexually compatible by participating in dates with the other. With the use of modern technology, people can date via telephone or computer or just meet in person. Dating may also involve two or more people who have already decided that they share romantic or sexual feelings toward each other.
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"Bottle Bases" page - Organization & Structure. This page is divided into two sections based on the primary methods by which bottles were manufactured - mouth-blown (hand-made) or machine-made (both semi and fully automatic) - since base features on these types of bottles generally differ significantly. There is also large section on pontil marks or scars located on a separate page due to its. The bases in a relationship. The four bases in a relationship, like in baseball, where the partners try to get home. Remember first base (kissing), second base (petting above th. Series: SexReally Show From: SexReally. When you rely upon this strategy, you're going to do against what most relationship. Without that you have nothing. base 1 - kissing base 2 - hand/fingering base 3 - head/licking out base 4 - sex There are four bases to dating. The four bases are french kissing, felling under the shirt, fore playing and then.
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Post bottom mold produced bottle. The "post" seam is a result of a separate base mold section or plate. A typical and distinctly "seamed" post mold bottle base is shown in the photograph to the right which is the base of a Warner's Safe Tonic Rochester, NY bottle that dates to between and Seeliger The mold base plate or post produces a round mold seam centered on the base like that pictured.
The pictured base also has the initials A. Perpendicular to each side of the round post seam are straight mold seams which run to and around the heel of the bottle to become the side mold seams. There is no mold seam that runs horizontally around the upper edge of the bottle heel like is found on a cup-bottom mold produced bottle discussed in next section.
This picture shows well the typical base appearance of a post mold produced bottle. Click on post mold bottle illustration to see a simple drawing that shows the typical side and base mold seam configuration of a post mold produced bottle.
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The picture to the left is the base of a calabash bottle that was produced in a post mold in the s, as indicated by the blowpipe "open" pontil scar. Click to enlarge. The side mold seams progress around the edge of the bottle heel and end at the outside edge of the round concave indentation which contains the pontil scar and which was formed by the post plate.
The end of the mold seams are not easily seen in the picture, though the round outside edge of the indentation where they end is apparent. Later figured flasks to or so were often made in post molds, though earlier flasks s were usually made in true two-piece hinge and key molds. There is a lot of overlap, however, particularly during the later s and early s.
On a significant number of post mold bottles there is an apparent mold induced "edge" or mold seam at the upper edge of the heel that may appear identical to the heel seam produced by the cup-bottom mold discussed next. Some have called this a "cup-post bottom mold" because it has features of both in evidence Ayres It is thought more likely that on a majority of bottles with this feature that it is a function of the interface of two mold pieces permanently attached together at that point - i.
There would be the potential of a mold seam formed on the bottle by the intersection of these two immovable mold pieces, though it is not a mold seam in the classic sense which was caused by the interface of two movable mold parts. In addition to the above variation possibility, there are several post mold variations or facts to be aware of, as described below:. Post molds were used to produce just about any type of bottles, with the majority of use of these molds made between the s and the early s.
However, similar to so many other cts of historic bottle dating, there are exceptions or variations based on the type or style of bottle and even bottle size. Cup-bottom molded bases. Empirical observations indicate that this was the dominant mold type for mouth-blown bottles from the late s to the domination of bottle making by automatic bottle machines by the late s.
Note: Most machine-made bottles were also produced in cup-bottom molds; see the machine-made section below. The cup-bottom mold was also at least a three-part mold where the third piece was a base plate which had an shallow depression that "cupped" and molded the entire base and the lower heel of the bottle, though on earlier items s and earlier it appears that the base plate was simply a flat piece of metal or even the floor of the glass works on which the two upper halves of the mold sat Kendrick ; empirical observations.
Note: For the purposes of this website, bottle molds with a flat or lacking base plate are considered cup-bottom molds since they do not fit any of the other noted mold configurations. The neck, shoulder, and entire body to the upper edge of the heel were formed by the two side mold sections, which unlike the post-mold, did not mold any of the actual base. Sometimes the finish was also partially or totally molded in a cup-bottom mold, particularly with tooled finish cup-bottom molded bottles "improved" tooled finish and most "ground top" canning jars.
For machine-made jars cup-bottom molds were the norm; see the machine-made section below.
At the upper edge of the heel there is usually a mold line in evidence running around the circumference of the bottle. This line indicates the interface between the lower edges of the side mold pieces and the upper edge of the cup-bottom molds base plate.
From this mold line - called a "bottom plate parting line" in the glassmaking world - the side mold seams branch off perpendicular Tooley Sometimes this heel mold seam is not obvious or visible and appears integrated into the heel edge of the bottle, though all cup-bottom molds had an interface of mold parts at the heel and the potential for a seam there. The heel seam can also be non-existent on bottles from molds with the previously noted flat, non-cupped mold base plate or no base plate at all i.
This seems to most commonly observed on the earlier cup-bottom mold bottles from the s and s which have a relatively sharp and almost non-existent heel Kendrick The illustration above left shows an example of what a cup-bottom mold could look like.
As shown, the base and lower heel were formed by a depression cut into the base plate of the mold. It was likely that the actual base plates were much smaller than that illustrated, which is based on mold replicas produced for and pictured in a Western Collector Magazine article by Dr. Julian Toulouse in the late s Toulouse b. The image above right is of an actual iron cup-bottom mold used for mouth-blown bottle production which most likely dates from the very late 19th century or very early 20th century.
This shows that indeed the entire base plate was smaller than the Toulouse replica, with the actual base forming portion a relatively small, elevated portion within which the cup-bottom indentation form was machined.
This elevated portion would greatly assist in the easy centering of the mold halves when they were shut around the parison, much like the post of the post-bottom mold. It is not known for sure what type bottle this mold produced, though it appears to be a small medicine or ink bottle as the bottle the mold produced was only 1.
There appears to be no finish form engraved into the upper neck portion of the mold i. Click on the following links to view more images of this mold: view of the mold in the closed position ; mold disassembled ; close-up of the hinge mechanism.
Photos courtesy of Chuck Flexser. C up-bottom mold produced bottle - no mold seams within the base. Click Cla-Wood Malt Tonic to view a picture of this entire bottle.
The four bases in a relationship, like in baseball, where the partners try to get home. First base is equivilent to french kissing, not just kissing. Second base is touching of private extremities and/or apendages of the partners' body, aka boob touch. Third base is oral sex. Lastly a home run or four bases is full on, big time sex. Thule Air Base is the US Armed Forces' northernmost installation. Thule's arctic environment includes icebergs in North Star Bay, two islands (Saunders Island and Wolstenholme Island), a polar ice sheet, and Wolstenholme Fjord - the only place on Earth where four active glaciers join together. Thule Air Base is home to the 21st Space Wing's global network of sensors providing missile Coordinates: 76°31?52?N 68°42?11?W? / ?°N . 1st Base - Is Kissing, french, open mouth or just a peck. Also any above the belt touching is included in this base 2nd Base - Hands below the belt. Fingering for girls or hand jobs for the guys. 3rd Base - When mouths are used below the belt. Essentially going down on a guy or girl. also This base includes the sex toys. 4th Base or Home base/plate - Going "all the way," doing the deed.
As shown in the picture there are no mold related seams on the base of a cup-bottom mold produced bottle which sets this type of molded base apart from the hinge, keyed, and post-bottom molded bottles which do have base mold seams.
There can be embossing on the base e. The druggist bottle pictured to the right is a relatively early cup-bottom mold produced bottle which also has a tooled finish, is embossed via an interchangeable mold plate i. Based on listings in the Portland City Directories, these two individuals were in a partnership for two years - and There were no directory listings prior to though they could have entered into a partnership sometime during without getting into that years listing and Blumauer was listed as the sole proprietor in This type of information produces a very narrow and reliable date for when this bottle was produced and is what provides support for the dating observations like those found in the box below.
Cup-bottom molds were used to produce just about any type or class of mouth-blown bottles, with the majority of use made between the mid to late s and late s when automatic machines dominated the bottle making market. As noted, cup-bottom molds continued to be the mold type of choice on automatic bottle machines also Toulouse b.
However, similar to so many other cts of historic bottle dating, there are exceptions or variations based on the type or style and even size of bottle. These dating estimates are primarily directed towards post-bottom and cup-bottom mold produced bases and are based on the authors empirical observations over time in conjunction with an wide array of published references noted on the Bottle Finishes page which provide relatively precise company dating for various types and styles of historic bottles.
As there are numerous exceptions to these general observations, dating accuracy is enhanced by using these base related date ranges in conjunction with other diagnostic features as noted on the Bottle D ating pages. The following information is, however, considered accurate for a majority of bottles within the type classes listed. Specifically, this includes larger patent medicines bottles, square "bitters" shaped bottles e.
Small generally " or less in height druggist bottles of most shapes square, round, rectangular, oval were cup-bottom molded beginning by at least by the early s and by the mid s were virtually exclusively cup-bottom molded. Post-bottom molded druggist bottles are very unusual, typically round, and usually date prior to the mids.
Some of the earliest non-pontil scarred druggist bottles s and early s appear to have been blown in molds with flat or no base plates i. These type molds are also considered cup-bottom molds. The pontiled soda bottle pictured under the "Bare Iron Pontil" discussion earlier on this page was produced in a post mold and definitively dates from the early s Markota On these types of bottles, the post base mold base seam is sometimes just inside the outside edge of the base and difficult to discern.
Thick glass soda, mineral water, and beer bottles continued to be produced in post-bottom molds up until at leastwith the major changeover to cup-bottom molds roughly occurring in hand with the adoption of the crown cap finish. Even then, post-bottom molds were used on soda and beer bottles dating at least as late as or so Pollard Common styles of small pint or less liquor flasks were typically being produced in cup-bottom molds from the early to mid s on. Prior to that, post-bottom molds were most common during the late s to about ; keyed or hinged molds were the most commonly used on liquor flasks prior to the mids.
However, on the post-bottom molded bottles the base post-bottom mold seam is often right at the outer edge of the base, just inside of where the base starts and heel ends making it very difficult to differentiate from a cup-bottom mold seam. Look closely at the side mold seam where it touches the heel of the bottle.
If there is any continuation of the side seam around the heel then it would be considered post-bottom mold formed and likely made prior to the early s.
Large 8" or more patent and proprietary medicine bottles including bitters were post-bottom mold produced up until the early s. Unusual or non-typical mold-blown bottle bases. Similar to most cts of bottle dating and identification, there are many variations of bottle bases which do not fit neatly into the categories listed and described above.
This section does not attempt to cover all of the anomalies possible, but instead addresses some of the common divergences from the previously described base types. Note : More may be covered in future revisions. Rounded bases were designed to do the opposite of most bottle bases - to ensure that the bottle was not left standing upright. The typical rounded base bottle was made of thick heavy glass and used for carbonated soda, mineral water, and in particular, ginger ale Munsey Some rounded bottom soda bottles actually have a small flattened area in the middle of the base that allows for the bottle to stand upright though somewhat precariously.
These type bottles are commonly referred to as "round bottom sodas" or "ballast bottles" since it is believed and may be true that many of them were imported from England as "ballast" weight in ships returning to the United States. A common variation is the "torpedo" bottle which is distinctly more pointed on the end with an bulging "amphora-like" body. The torpedo style was first used in England at least as early as when a patent was granted to William F.
A picture of a typical pointed base torpedo soda bottle is pictured below right. It is embossed with "Walkden Aerated Water Co. As such these type of bottles are simply a rounded base version of the "hinge" mold discussed earlier and exhibit one continuous mold seam that runs from one side of the body, around the base, and then up the other side.
Click round bottom soda to view a picture of this entire bottle. The majority of these type bottles found in the United States were imported from Great Britain and frequently embossed with company names and cities from England and Ireland - Belfast being a very common point of origin. However, some were - like the bottle pictured - either made in the United States or made overseas for U. They were advertised in the catalogs of U. The vast majority of rounded or pointed base bottles were designed and used for non-alcoholic, carbonated beverages.
However, like with most types of bottles there are exceptions. Some midth century liquor flasks came with rounded bases, though the bottles are flattened in cross section "flask shaped" not round.
It has a rounded base like the soda bottles but has a flattened back so that the bottle will not roll on a flat surface. The contents of this bottle were some type of hand or general use disinfectant solution. The bottle was inserted upside down into a metal appliance that allowed for the controlled dispensing of the contents; thus, the upside down embossing Rochester Midland Co. The extreme rarity of this bottle as well as some diagnostic features applied finish, air venting pattern of a single mark on each shoulder indicates that it was very likely produced for a very short time after patenting, i.
If there is one constant in the identification and dating of historic bottle it is that there are many exceptions to the general facts noted on this website. However, this does not negate the utility of such information which is based on the probability that in a large majority of cases, the noted trends and information are correct or applicable.
Bases in dating wikipedia
It is the best one can do, though there are also many bottle "mysteries" which present unlimited opportunities for further research, though may never be unraveled.
All turn-mold bottles also called "paste mold" are round in cross section and have round bases since no other shape could be turned or twisted in the mold to produce the seamless body distinctive of these bottles. The base of a turn-mold bottle is usually at least slightly indented and often has a deeply indented push-up aka "kick-up" like the bottle pictured to the left.
The base encircling mold seam from a base plate which most molds had would not be evident at the heel of the bottle due to the bottle rotation, though may be vaguely implied by a subtle ridge at the top of the heel. There would generally be no embossed lettering on the base of a turn-mold bottle since the base turns with the rest of the bottle, though there may be bumps or a mamelon - see picture or "dots" in the center of the base which would not inhibit the rotating of the bottle in the mold.
Mold air venting is not typically visible on turn-mold bottles since the evidence of such was erased by the rotation, although it is thought that the mamelon itself was often the result of an air venting hole in the middle of the base. Because of the rotation of the bottle in the mold not the opposite as the name "turn- mold " would suggest embossing on the body of the bottle was impossible. In addition, a very large majority of turn-mold bottles have no embossing on the base although it is occasionally observed.
In fact, William F. Modes of Modes Glass Co. The following is quoted from that patent:. It is old to turn bottles in molds for polishing purposes, and it is old to imprint characters on the bottom of bottles which are not turned in the mold; but I claim to be the first one to employ a rotary bottom in the mold.
Patent Office To view the entire patent click on the following link: Patent- " Mold for Blowing Turned Bottles " - June 14, Toulouse noted in his write-up for Streator that " In any event, base embossed turn-mold bottles are uncommon the most abundant observed by this author are German made turn-mold beer bottles base embossed variably with H.
Click on the following links to see images of an H. These German produced bottles are quite commonly encountered in the American West empirical observations and probably throughout North America. In addition, some Japanese turn-mold beer bottles have been observed with base embossing.
What "The Bases" Really Mean
This bottle could date from the same era as the label since turn-mold bottles were still being produced at least as late as the early s Illinois Glass CompanyToulouse b. However, the bottle could possibly pre-date the label and have been reused or recycled for this product since this bottles method of manufacture turn-mold, tooled finish was being used at least as early as the late s.
It is likely the bottle was made at the time the label was made mids though there is way to ascertain this for certain. Click Vin Zymo Tonic to view a picture of this entire bottle and label. The large majority of turn-mold bottles were made between the s and the late s, with the most made after the mids until automatic machines dominated the market Toulouse b.
Most of the bottles produced were for liquor, wine, beer, mineral water, and occasional other beverages as well as some barber bottles and "shop furniture" bottles empirical observations. Pontil scars are very unusual on turn-mold bottles with the exception that they are frequently seen on turn-mold barber bottles from the late 19th and even early 20th century and occasional shop furniture bottles made during the last half of the 19th century.
Machine-made Bottles. All machine-made semi-automatic or fully automatic bottles have in common the fact that they were blown with the air applied by a machine, not that of a glassblowers lungs. For a general overview of machine-made bottle characteristics and diagnostic features consult the page entitled Bottle Dating: Machine-made bottles portion of the Dating Key.
In general, the bases of machine-made bottles are much simpler to describe than mouth-blown bottles as machine-made bottle bases have only a few potential manufacturing based diagnostic features. Most glassmakers preferred to use cup-bottom molds on automatic bottle machines even though post molds could be used also. Thus, most machine-made bottles have cup-bottom mold conformations Toulouse b.
Machine-made bottles produced in a post mold almost always show the base plate seam right near the outside edge of the base, as shown in the picture below.
To our knowledge, the base mold seams are never found well inside the base like is found on mouth-blown post mold bottles. See the discussion of post-bottom and cup-bottom molds in the mouth-blown bottle section above for more information on these mold types. No "lung blowers " employed. Travis Glass Co. Manager says machines are fast coming into play in bottle industry, plans eventually to have machines in place of "carrying in boys. This two table semi-automatic machine would have been hand fed with glass and does have the two different mold sets with the parison molds most likely the set on the right.
Blowing air would have been supplied by the pipes and hoses coming in from above. A couple other distinctive machine-made base features are the result of the mechanics of how the machine operated - suction scars and valve marks. These are covered below. The bases of bottles produced by some early blow-and-blow cycle semi-automatic machines can be hard to distinguish from the bases of many late 19th and early 20th century mouth-blown bottles due to an absence of machine induced diagnostic evidence on the base.
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An example is the bottle pictured to the left which is the base of a machine-made, post mold produced Hall's Wine Tonic. It is most likely English made - though found commonly in the U.
This bottle could have been produced by either a semi-automatic or fully automatic non-Owens bottle machine most likely the former. It was not produced by an Owens Automatic Bottle Machine since the base of the bottle is not marred by any suction scarring or even any parison mold seams.
The lack of parison mold seams on the base likely indicates an early semi-automatic machine production by an unknown machine. The bottle does exhibit all the other standard machine-made features 1- 4, 6 as described at the following link - Bottle Dating: Machine-made bottles portion of the Dating Key. Click Halls Wine Tonic to view a picture of the entire bottle. In general, bottles produced by semi-automatic machines are impossible to differentiate from those produced by non-Owens type fully-automatic bottle machines.
This is because a non-Owens automatic machine was essentially a semi-automatic made automatic with the addition of a glass feeding device i.
Excluding the base, semi-automatic machine made bottles are physically indistinguishable from all types of machine-made bottles. There was also another large class of non-Owens machine-made bottles that exhibit a suction mark-like circle not induced by the glass feeding process - suction or gob feeder. In fact, most non-Owens machine-made bottles made in the 20th century have some form of this attribute. The picture to the right is of a modern beer bottle produced in by the Owens-Illinois Glass Company that exhibits the distinctive "baffle mark" induced by the base plate "baffle plate" of the parison or blank mold portion of an Individual Section Machine Tooley ; Phil Perry, O-I engineer, pers.